Tables

Midterm Evaluation of the Pandemic Preparedness Strategic Research Initiative

[ Table of contents ]

List of tables:


Table 1: PPSRI program components, in chronological order of due date of full application1

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Application deadlines Funding Opportunities Objectives2 Maximum Amount per Grant and Duration
October 2006 Pandemic Preparedness Operating Grants Funding Opportunity
  • To address scientific questions/problems related to influenza for pandemic preparedness such as new diagnostic methodologies, evaluation of vaccines, development and evaluation of antivirals, control of disease spread, outbreak modeling, design and assessment of optimal control strategies and social and ethical issues.
  • To address knowledge translation questions/problems related to pandemic outbreaks such as risk communications and infection control.
  • To allow researchers to assess the viability of new research directions in the area of influenza for pandemic preparedness or to develop supporting data for high risk research directions.
  • To address ethical issues related to influenza pandemic preparedness.
  • To enhance influenza prevention and control strategies for a pandemic outbreak and increase Canada's preparedness and research response capacity.
  • To explore and address public health and healthcare system integration in areas such as surge capacity, health human resources training and requirements.
  • To improve linkages between researchers and national or international agencies in order to maximize uptake of research results in preparation for a pandemic outbreak.3
$250,000 over 2 years
October 2006 CIHR / Regional Partnership Program/Operating Grant: Pandemic Preparedness
  • Same as above
Amount differs by region, over 2 years
October 2006

December 2006
International Opportunities Program - Collaborative Research Project
  • To enable Canadian researchers to develop new international collaborations and to participate on major international research projects.
  • To gain access to cutting edge research and technologies that are not currently available in Canada.
  • To position CIHR as an international player in health research.
$25,000 over 1 year
CIHR International Opportunity Program – Development Planning Grant
CIHR International Opportunity Program – Development Planning Grant
July 2007 Team Grant: Influenza Transmission and Prevention Funding Opportunity*
  • To address scientific questions/problems related to pandemic preparedness research aimed at innovative ways to study transmission and prevention of influenza, including the study of modes of transmission of the influenza virus and alternate strategies for prevention, including zoonotic transmission, particularly how ecosystem approaches can be applied to understanding the avian-human transmission dynamics in the prevention of human disease.
  • To create excellent environments for training and development for the next generation of pandemic preparedness and influenza researchers.
  • To enhance the research capacity in Canada for pandemic preparedness research by integrating trainees into well designed and funded research teams.
  • To foster collaborations between Canadian researchers and researchers based in middle and low income countries in SE Asia and China.
  • To address knowledge translation questions/problems related to methods and technology in order to better respond to an influenza pandemic.
  • To increase awareness of this research by the general public, health care professionals, voluntary health organizations and policy makers.
  • To develop recommendations for pandemic preparedness planning and control and to disseminate this information to national and international agencies involved in these areas.
$1,500,000 over 3 years
December 2006 Workshop/Symposia Support in collaboration with Knowledge Translation Branch
  • Support workshops and symposia that are determined to be relevant to pandemic research and that will contribute to pandemic preparedness planning and control.
Workshops: $5,000
Symposia: $10,000
Conferences: $20,000
March 2007

February 2008
Application Development Workshop: Team and Operating Grants
  • Enable researchers who are interested in applying for this program, to meet each other and end users, exchange information and discuss areas of common interest with a view to preparing applications.
  • Assist researchers in gaining an understanding of the application process, and the key components of the application.
---
Application Development Workshop: Influenza research Network
March 2007

September 2007

September 2008
Bridge Funding: Pandemic Preparedness Strategic Research Initiative*
  • To offer short-term support to researchers who submit excellent research operating grant applications in areas relevant to the Pandemic Preparedness Strategic Research Initiative that are not funded through the regular CIHR funding opportunities to which they were submitted.
$100,000 over 1 year
May 2007 Applied Public Health Chairs** In areas relevant to pandemic preparedness:
  • Support high quality and focused programs of policy and program intervention research of national relevance to public health.
  • Foster formal linkages with the public health system to support the timely and effective application of research into policies, programs and practice.
  • Support Canadian universities to develop graduate and continuous education programs in public health.
  • Stimulate innovative approaches in public health intervention research, mentorship, education and knowledge translation.
  • Educate and mentor the current and next generation of public health researchers (trainees, post-graduate students and junior faculty), practitioners and policy makers.
$925,000 over 5 years
June 2007

October 2008
Knowledge Synthesis Grant
  • Strengthen knowledge translation by funding research syntheses related to preparing for and responding to an influenza pandemic, with the ultimate goal that new knowledge will allow Canada and others around the world to prevent or mitigate an influenza pandemic or to be better prepared to respond to a pandemic should one arise.
$100,000 over I year
February 2008

June 2008

October 2008
Meetings, Planning and Dissemination Grant: End of Grant KT Supplement*
  • For research results than can be translated into new strategies to prevent or mitigate an outbreak and contribute to pandemic preparedness planning and control: To facilitate the uptake of research results through appropriate KT strategies/activities based on the best evidence of effectiveness for the identified target audience(s) following successful completion of a CIHR grant/project.
$25,000 over 1 year
December 2007

April 2008

August 2008

December 2008
Meetings, Planning and Dissemination Grant: Infection and Immunity*
  • To address specific questions or problems important to infection and immunity health research in Canada, with the purpose of reaching a consensus on recommendations or conclusions leading to an improved focus on research issues.
  • To support scientific educational symposia with areas of importance to a significant number of Canadian investigators and having direct relevance to infection and immunity health research.
  • To facilitate knowledge exchange through limited support of scientific meetings and conferences with content focused primarily in areas of infection and immunity.
$25,000 over 1 year.
March 2008 Operating Grant: Priority Announcement – Pandemic Preparedness – Transmission, Public Health Measures and Compliance*
  • To further strengthen the knowledge base and enhance research capacity in pandemic preparedness research: addressing questions of influenza transmission, the effectiveness of public health control measures and the fostering of compliance with public health control measures
$900,000 over 3 years
November 2007 Operating Grant: Pandemic Preparedness Research - Influenza Diagnostics Transmission, Ethics Review and Antivirals*
  • To address scientific questions/problems related to pandemic preparedness research focused on innovative ways to optimize use of antivirals, rapid diagnostics, prevention of influenza transmission and the ethics review process.
  • To create excellent environments for training and development for the next generation of pandemic preparedness and influenza researchers.
  • To enhance the research capacity in Canada for pandemic preparedness research by integrating trainees in well designed and funded research projects.
  • To address knowledge translation questions/problems related to methods and technology in order to better respond to an influenza pandemic.
  • To contribute to the body of knowledge used in pandemic preparedness planning and control and to disseminate research results to national and international agencies involved in these areas.
$525,000 over 3 years
December 2007 Catalyst Grants: Mobilization of the Research Community
  • To contribute to Canadian pandemic preparedness by supporting individual researchers or small teams of researchers from Canada's pandemic and influenza research community in their preparation for outbreak research.
  • To prepare for high-quality research that addresses an important health, health care or health system problem or issue that needs to be examined during an outbreak.
  • To plan outbreak research projects before a pandemic outbreak occurs.
$100,000 over 1 year
January 2008 Team Grant: Pandemic Preparedness - Influenza Biology, Vaccines, Ethics, Legal and Social Research*
  • To address scientific questions/problems related to influenza vaccines, such as the optimal use and efficiency of existing influenza vaccines, the biology of the influenza virus including the human and animal host response to influenza infection, the animal-human interface, surveillance, risk assessment and modeling, and ethics, legal and social issues related to influenza pandemic preparedness such as risk communication and prioritization.
  • To create excellent environments for training and development for the next generation of pandemic preparedness and influenza researchers.
  • To enhance the research capacity in Canada for animal and human pandemic preparedness research by integrating trainees in well designed and funded research teams.
  • To address knowledge translation questions/problems related to methods and technology in order to better respond to an influenza pandemic.
  • To develop recommendations for pandemic preparedness planning and control and to disseminate this information to national and international agencies involved in these areas.
$1,500,000 over 3 years
March 2008 Partners for Health Systems Improvement Funding Opportunity*** In order to create new knowledge for informed decision making in pandemic planning and policies:
  • Support research that "reflects the emerging health needs of Canadians and the evolution of the health system and supports health policy decision-making";
  • Support research relevant to decision makers by producing results that can be applied to multiple regions and/or settings;
  • Foster "collaboration with the provinces and with individuals and organizations in or outside of Canada that have an interest in health or health research" and engage a variety of partners, "in or outside Canada, with complementary research interests";
  • Promote the "involvement and recognition of, and respect for, health researchers from [an array] of health disciplines"; and,
  • Enable "the dissemination of knowledge and application of health research to improve the health of Canadians" and strengthen the Canadian health care system (including the public health system).
CIHR contribution: up to $150,000 over 3 years Required partnerships funding, ratio depends on province/territory – 2:1 or 1:1
March 2008

March 2009
China-Canada Joint Health Research Initiative – Grants Program Funding Opportunity
  • To provide support for basic research on viral and bacterial diseases and development of vaccines
$180,000 over 3 years (including National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) contribution)
June 2008 Catalyst Grant: Pandemic Outbreak Team Leader*
  • To contribute to Canadian pandemic preparedness by identifying high quality team leaders who can bring together research teams in an outbreak.
  • To support high quality research in the event of a pandemic
$25,000 for I year
October 2008 Catalyst Grant: Pandemic Preparedness* Seed money, on a short-term basis, to:
  • Generate preliminary observations, data or knowledge, or to facilitate team formation, as a first step towards the pursuit of more comprehensive funding opportunities (e.g., operating grants, team grants) by researchers or teams of researchers.
  • Support original, high quality projects which have the potential to generate high impact results and/or innovative research proposals, research tools, techniques, devices, inventions, or methodologies.
Relevant research areas were:
  • Comparison of protective products (such as masks) and strategies (such as social distancing) that will contribute to effective and innovative methods for prevention of transmission of influenza.
  • Development of processes, guidelines and standard operating procedures to allow ethics review of applications related to public health threats quickly.
  • Evaluation of antiviral utilization, effectiveness, adverse effects and resistance in treatment of respiratory infections such as influenza.
  • Analysis of influenza detection strategies in remote Inuit and First Nations communities and studies of the impact and outcomes of control measures in these communities.
  • Evaluation of risk for influenza and pandemic influenza, and development of recommendations using scenario analysis in conjunction with mathematical and epidemiological modeling.
  • Identification of specific populations (e.g., immigrants, people living in low income housing and Aboriginal peoples) most at risk of acquiring an infection.
  • Effective means to educate health care providers in the application of care guidelines and identify effective protective measures.
    $100,000 for I year
    February 2009 Influenza Research Network*
    • To develop and test methodologies/methods related to the evaluation of influenza vaccines as they pertain to safety, immunogenicity and effectiveness, and program implementation and evaluation;
    Expected to contribute to:
    • Consolidating the foundation of existing expertise in vaccine evaluation.
    • Increasing the capacity to rapidly test candidate vaccines, in the event of a pandemic outbreak, due to the linkages and methodologies developed by the Network.
    • Creating and strengthening links and facilitating two-way knowledge exchange amongst vaccine evaluation researchers and between vaccine evaluation researchers and decision makers.
    • Training the next generation of pandemic preparedness and influenza researchers.
    $10.8 Million over three years

    1Source: CIHR website, current and archived funding opportunities searches.
    2There is no overarching objectives statement for the whole PPSRI; rather, objectives statements were prepared for each of the funding opportunities.
    3Operating Grant: Pandemic Preparedness (Archived)
    *Adjudication included both Relevance Review and Peer Review.
    **Adjudication was by Merit Review.
    ***Adjudication included both Merit Review and Peer Review.

    Table 2: Pandemic research allocations managed through PPSRI, 2006/07 to 2012/13

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    Year
    Funding Source 2006/07 2007/08 2008/09 2009/10 2010/11 2011/12 2012/13 Total
    PPSRI Core Funding 2,225,000 2,225,000 5,150,000 5,150,000 5,150,000 $19,900,000
    Internal Partners 365,833 820,000 395,000 332,500 370,000 154,167 $ 2,437,500
    External Partners 1,464,624 1,775,000 5,480,000 5,160,000 4,050,000 $17,929,624
    Total 2,225,000 4,055,457 7,745,000 11,025,000 10,642,500 4,420,000 154,167 $40,267,124

    Data provided by III, as of December 2008.

    Table 3: Evaluation issues and questions

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    Issue Questions
    1. Effectiveness of priority setting
    1.1 To what extent were the PPSRI research priority setting processes appropriate, in terms of timeliness, mechanisms, and inclusivity of: a) research areas and b) groups of researchers?
    1.2 How successful were the research priority setting processes – to what extent did they arrive at the most appropriate set of priorities for Canadian research in pandemic preparedness?
    1.3 To what extent was national and international duplication of effort avoided, and complementarity enabled?
    1.4 How necessary, appropriate (in terms of role and composition) and effective was the Task Group?
    2. Effectiveness of partnership development
    2.1 To what extent has the PPSRI been successful in building national and international partnerships? Which partnerships have been most and least successful? Are there partnerships that should be developed but have not been?
    2.2 What have been the impacts of partnerships on: a) coordination and integration of national and international research programming; b) resource leveraging; c) research duplication and complementarity?
    2.3 To what extent have the partnership structure and reporting strategy been effective in supporting the ongoing initiatives of partners, including the PPSRI?
    3. Appropriateness of program design
    3.1 To what extent is the suite of activities and funding programs offered through the PPSRI allowing the achievement of program objectives? Which components are most and least successful?
    3.2 Is the overall strategy of strategic competition effective in ensuring that the most promising research is funded? Would an alternative strategy including the enabling "front-runners" (recognized leaders in the relevant fields) to continue to pursue relevant PP research) be more effective? Was this the most effective strategy for short and long-term capacity-building?
    3.3 How effective was the communication strategy used to launch the funding opportunities?
    4. Achievement of desired funding opportunity outputs
    4.1 To what extent have the funding programs generated expected and/or desirable uptake from the relevant research communities?
    4.2 To what extent do the sets of funded projects cover the intended field of program objectives? Which objectives streams are more and less well represented across funded projects?
    4.3 To what extent will the funded projects result in building research capacity in areas related to pandemic preparedness (e.g., training of students, redirection of research foci, new investigators on teams)?
    5. Success of PPSRI networking and KT activities
    5.1 To what extent has the PPSRI been successful in facilitating communication and networking among researchers involved in pandemic preparedness research? Have all relevant teams and individuals been provided with networking opportunities, and what has been the uptake?
    5.2 To what extent are communication and networking producing the expected results in terms of enhanced collaboration and increased capacity?
    5.3 To what extent has the groundwork been put in place for effective knowledge translation to occur (e.g., inclusion of end-users, KT plans?)

    Table 4: Interviews conducted

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    Type Number
    III / CIHR staff 3
    Task Group members 4
    Partner and stakeholder organizations 11
    Researchers and peer reviewers 4
    Total 22

    Table 5: Survey invitations and responses, by researcher category

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    Researcher category No. in population No. of responses (%)
    Funded applicants: Nominated principal investigators 35 21 (60%)
    Funded applicants; co-investigators and co-applicants 162 65 (40%)
    Unsuccessful applicants 231 59 (26%)
    Non-applicants 58 12 (21%)
    Total 486 157 (34%)

    Table 6: Survey respondent characteristics (n = 157)

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    Characteristic Funded applicants, including NPIs Unsuccessful applicants Non-applicants
    Disciplines of main research experience (multiple responses allowed)
    Biomedical sciences 40 (47%) 18 (31%) 7 (58%)
    Clinical health sciences 23 (27%) 17 (29%) 3 (25%)
    Health systems and services 25 (29%) 12 (20%) *
    Population and public health 32 (37%) 26 (44%) 5 (42%)
    Type of institution or organization (multiple responses allowed)
    University 65 (76%) 47 (80%) 10 (83%)
    College * * *
    University-affiliated hospital 35 (41%) 19 (32%) 5 (42%)
    Community-based hospital * * *
    Community-based/volunteer agency or organization * * *
    Government-funded agency or research agency 12 (14%) 17 (29%) *
    Private research organization * * *
    Other (unclear whether private or public) * * *

    *Ns less than 5 are not shown.

    Table 7: Researchers' views of conflict of interest (n = 127 applicants)

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    No. (%) agree or strongly agree
    I felt there was conflict of interest in the way the PPSRI was designed. 12 (13.5%)
    I felt there was conflict of interest in the way the PPSRI applications were reviewed. 11 (14.5%)

    Table 8: Researchers' rating of pandemic research priority areas in the next five years (n = 157)

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    Priority area No. (%) indicating high or very high priority
    Prevention and treatment 128 (83%)
    Vaccines and immunization 125 (81%)
    Virus biology and diagnostics 106 (71%)
    Ethical, legal or social aspects 76 (50%)
    Other areas related to pandemic preparedness and influenza research (see Appendix 5)
    74% (average over 4 possible responses)

    Table 9: Incentive and disincentive features for applications: Factors in applying or not applying

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    No. (%) agree or strongly agree
    Applicants (n = 125)
    Factors in decision to submit)
    Non-applicants (n = 10)
    Factors in decision to NOT submit)
    Qualifications of me and my co-applicants 118 (94%) *
    Degree of fit of my research with the themes 116 (93%) 6
    Type of grants offered (e.g., team grants) 92 (74%) *
    Applicants: Thought my/our chances of success were good
    Non-applicants: Thought my/our chances of success were not good enough
    88 (70%) 6
    Applicants: Timing of RFA was good
    Non- applicants: Timing of RFA was poor
    84 (67%) *
    Applicants: Needed more research funding
    Non applicants: Already had enough research funding
    69 (55%) 10
    Size of the grants offered 67 (54%) *
    Duration of the grants offered 67 (54%) *
    Program seemed to be targeting specific groups of researchers 62 (50%) 8
    Past experience with applications to CIHR 56 (45%) *
    Expected involvement of students in the project 54 (43%) *
    Relative prestige compared to other programs available 48 (38%) *
    Other reasons 20 (16%) *
    Was not aware that it existed Not asked *

    *Ns of less than 5 are not shown.

    Table 10: Researchers' agreement with types of funding strategies

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    No. (%) agree or strongly agree
    In designing strategic research initiatives such as the PPSRI, funding agencies may use different strategies to maximize the chances of significant advancement in knowledge. With respect to the PPSRI, to what extent to do you agree with the following strategies? Funded applicants, including NPIs
    (n = 86)
    Unsuccessful applicants
    (n = 59)
    Non-applicants
    (n = 12)
    Funding should ensure that recognized leaders in the targeted research areas can continue to pursue relevant research. 67 (78%) 32 (55%) 7 (58%)
    Funding should ensure that all researchers who can possibly make a contribution have the opportunity to compete for funds. 73 (85%) 51 (86%) 11 (92%)
    Funding should concentrate on increasing research capacity by targeting researchers and their trainees who are new to the field. 41 (48%) 37 (65%) 6 (50%)

    Table 11: Program uptake and success rates

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    Application Deadlines Funding opportunities No. of applications received* No. of applications withdrawn No. of fundable applications No. of funded applications Success rate (%) based on:
    Fundable applications Reviewed applications
    Aug 2006 Pandemic Preparedness Operating Grants Funding Opportunity 60 2 28 26 93 45
    Aug 2006 CIHR/ Regional Partnership Program/ Operating Grant: Pandemic Preparedness 1 0 1 1 ** 100 100
    Oct 2006

    Dec 2006
    International Opportunities Program - Collaborative Research Project

    2 0 1 1 100

    50
    CIHR International Opportunity Program – Development Planning Grant 3 0 1 1 100 33
    CIHR International Opportunity Program – Development Planning Grant 6 0 6 6 100 100
    Dec 2006 Team Grant: Influenza Transmission and Prevention Funding Opportunity 8 3 1 1 100 20
    Dec 2006 Workshop/ Symposia Support in collaboration with Knowledge Translation Branch 1 0 1 1 100 100
    Mar 2007 Bridge Funding: Pandemic Preparedness Strategic Research Initiative 3 0 3 3 100

    100
    Sept 2007 4 0 2 2 100 50
    Sept 2008 1 1 0 0 0 0
    June 2007 Knowledge Synthesis Grant 0 0 0 0 0 -
    Oct 2008 1 1 0 0 0 0
    July 2007 Applied Public Health Chairs (relevant to PPSRI) 3 0 2 2 100 67
    Feb 2008 Meetings, Planning and Dissemination Grant: End of Grant Knowledge Translation Supplement 0 0 0 0 0 -
    June 2008 0 0 0 0 0 -
    Oct 2008 0 0 0 0 0 -
    Oct 2007 Meetings, Planning and Dissemination Grant: Infection and Immunity 0 0 0 0 0 -
    Feb 2008 0 0 0 0 0 -
    June 2008 1 0 1 1 100 100
    Mar 2008 Operating Grant: Priority Announcement – Pandemic Preparedness – Transmission, Public Health Measures and Compliance 2 0 0 0 0 0
    Nov 2007 Operating Grant: Pandemic Preparedness Research - Influenza Diagnostics Transmission, Ethics Review and Antivirals 9 0 5 5 100 56
    Dec 2007 Catalyst Grants: Mobilization of the Research Community 14 0 5 5 100 36
    Jan 2008 Team Grant: Pandemic Preparedness - Influenza Biology, Vaccines, Ethics, Legal and Social Research 15 0 13 9 69 60
    Mar 2008 Partners for Health Systems Improvement Funding Opportunity 1 0 1 1 100 100
    Mar 2008 China-Canada Joint Health Research Initiative – Grants Program Funding Opportunity 3 2 1 1 100 100
    June 2008 Catalyst Grant: Pandemic Outbreak Team Leader 3 1 2 2 100 67
    Oct 2008 Catalyst Grant: Pandemic Preparedness 7 2 3 3 100 60
    Dec 2008 Influenza Research Network 1 0 In peer review - - -
    Total 149 10 77 71 92% 51%

    * For partner-led funding opportunities, # of applications received = # of relevant applications received.
    ** This grant was successful but funded by another source.

    Table 12: Impacts of funded projects on research capacity development, by respondent's research area

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    No. (%) agree or strongly agree1
    Vaccines & immunization/ prevention and treatment
    (n = 56)
    Virus biology and diagnostics
    (n = 31)
    Ethical, legal or social aspects
    (n = 28)
    Total
    (n = 80)
    Because of the PPSRI, my research work involves researchers from areas or disciplines that were not involved with my work before. 39 (62%) 21 (72%) 16 (57%) 47 (61%)
    The PPSRI has contributed to a reorientation of my research focus. 19 (30%) 11 (36%) 8 (29%) 24 (30%)

    1There is some overlap between the three categories of research area, as respondents were asked to choose all that applied to their work.

    Table 13: Number of trainees involved in PPSRI grants

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    No. (21 grants) Avg, per grant Projection to all research grants1 (69)
    Undergraduate students 14 (range 1 to 5) 1.25 89
    Master's students 11 (range 1 to 3) .75 54
    PhD students 10 (range 1 to 5) 1.05 75
    Post-doctoral fellows 12 (range 1 or 2) .65 46
    Other types of trainees (research assistant, technician, clinician-scientist, master's practicum) 6 (range 1 or 2) .35 25
    Total 53 2.5 173

    1Excluding workshops.

    Table 14: Role of trainees in funded projects Funded applicants, including NPIs, n = 84)

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    No. (%) agree or strongly agree
    My PPSRI project has included interdisciplinary training for students/fellows. 47 (64%)
    My PPSRI project has included mentoring of students/fellows in influenza and pandemic preparedness research. 54 (73%)
    My PPSRI project has increased the number of trainees in influenza and pandemic preparedness research. 49 (68%)

    Table 15: Impacts of funded projects on research capacity development, by respondent's research area

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    No. (%) agree or strongly agree1
    Vaccines & immunization/ prevention and treatment
    (n = 56)
    Virus biology and diagnostics
    (n = 31)
    Ethical, legal or social aspects
    (n = 28)
    Total
    (n = 80)
    The PPSRI has helped me/my team network with other researchers involved in influenza and pandemic preparedness research. 51 (81%) 25 (83%) 17 (62%) 60 (78%)
    The PPSRI has helped me/my team collaborate with other researchers involved in influenza and pandemic preparedness research. 45 (71%) 23 (73%) 17 (63%) 54 (70%)
    The PPSRI has helped me/my team involve international research collaborators. 15 (24%) 8 (28%) 7 (25%) 21 (27%)

    1There is some overlap between the three categories of research area, as respondents were asked to choose all that applied to their work.

    Table 16: Knowledge translation in PPSRI projects (No. (%) agree or strongly agree)

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    Vaccines & immunization/ prevention and treatment
    (n = 62)
    Virus biology and diagnostics
    (n = 31)
    Ethical, legal or social aspects
    (n = 28)
    Total1
    (n = 80)
    Research users are currently involved in my PPSRI project. 38 (59%) 15 (48%) 19 (68%) 47 (66%)
    Research users will eventually become involved in my PPSRI project. 12 (24%) 8
    (26%)
    * 14 (21%)
    My PPSRI project has a knowledge translation plan in place. 40 (68%) 18 (58%) 23 (82%) 53 (73%)

    1There is some overlap between the three categories of research area, as respondents were asked to choose all that applied to their work.
    *Ns of less than 5 are not shown.

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