Glossary of Funding-Related Terms

For help with terminology and official titles of CIHR programs and initiatives, consult the CIHR English-French Lexicon. For recommendations on style and usage in English, consult the CIHR English Style Guide.

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adverse effects (effet indésirable ou préjudice)

An adverse event for which the causal relation between the drug/intervention and the event is at least a reasonable possibility. The term 'adverse effect' applies to all interventions, while 'adverse drug reaction' (ADR) is used only with drugs. In the case of drugs an adverse effect tends to be seen from the point of view of the drug and an adverse reaction is seen from the point of view of the patient. (Source: Cochrane, accessed 20 Nov 09)

See also severe adverse events or harms.

adverse event (événement indésirable)

An adverse outcome that occurs during or after the use of a drug or other intervention but is not necessarily caused by it. (Source: Cochrane; accessed 20 Nov 09)

See also adverse reaction.

adverse reaction (réaction indésirable)

Unfavourable changes in health, including abnormal laboratory findings, that occur in trial participants during the clinical trial or within a specified period following the trial. (Source: Clinical

An unwanted effect caused by the administration of drugs. Onset may be sudden or develop over time. There are anticipated and unanticipated adverse events.

See also side effect.

aggregate data (données agrégées)

Refers to the definition of summary-level data.

application (new) (nouvelle demande)

A new application is:

  • an application to start a new line of investigation; or
  • a resubmission of an unsuccessful new or renewal application; or
  • a late submission of a renewal application.

application (renewal) (demande de renouvellement)

An application to renew funding of a currently-held CIHR grant to continue the same line of investigation.

application of knowledge (ethically-sound)(application des connaissances éthiquement saine)

Ethically-sound KT activities for improved health are those that are consistent with ethical principles and norms, social values, as well as legal and other regulatory frameworks - while keeping in mind that principles, values and laws can compete among and between each other at any given point in time. The term application is used to refer to the iterative process by which knowledge is put into practice.

Implicit in the CIHR definition of KT is the notion that evaluation and monitoring of KT initiatives, processes, and activities are key components of the KT process.

archived funding opportunity (possibilité de financement archivée)

A funding opportunity whose application deadline date has passed.

authorized official (représentant autorisé)

An individual who has the authority to bind the Institution or organization to the general conditions governing grants and awards, as per the statement Meaning of Signatures on Application Forms outlined in the CIHR Grants and Awards Guide.

authorized official (primary) (premier représentant autorisé)

An individual who has the authority to:

  • provide access to the Electronic Approval Tool to other individuals at their institution (i.e., authorized officials);
  • bind the institution to the general conditions governing grants and awards, as per the statement Meaning of Signatures on Application Forms outlined in the CIHR Grants and Awards Guide.

award (bourse)

Direct salary support to individual research personnel or stipend support to individual research trainees.

award (pending) (bourse en attente)

Projects that have been approved for funding by CIHR however before funds can be released, the Nominated Principal Applicant has to resolve issues with their application. Pending awards have a status of "Pending" on the funding decision announcement and the Notice of Decision.

award holder (titulaires de bourse)

Refers to the definition of holder (award).


citizen (citoyen)

Encompasses interested representatives of the general public, consumers of health services, patients, caregivers, advocates and representatives from affected community and voluntary health organizations.

citizen engagement (engagement des citoyens)

The meaningful involvement of citizens in its activities, from agenda-setting and planning to decision making, implementation and review.

clinical trial (essai clinique)

A prospective controlled or uncontrolled research study evaluating the effects of one or more health-related interventions assigned to human participants.

collaboration (funding) (collaboration financière)

A business transaction in which two or more entities exchange things of value. This value can be financial, in-kind, or benefits related to visibility/exposure, or publicity. It also involves a display of affiliation that stops short of product endorsement.

collaborator (collaborateur)

CIHR defines a Collaborator as an individual whose role in the proposed activities is to provide a specific service (e.g., access to equipment, provision of specific reagents, training in a specialized technique, statistical analysis, access to a patient population, etc.).

community leader (dirigeant communautaire)

An individual who has direct involvement with an affected community, understands the needs of the community and how research can lead to useful practical outcomes for the community, and who can facilitate the involvement of the community in the research process.

company (société)

A business enterprise; a firm or a group of firms.

comptrollership (fonction de contrôle)

Having clear accountabilities, effective control over resources, sound risk management and performance assessments, and an open reporting of results in relation to the expenditure of public funds.

contributions (cash) (contributions en espèces)

Contributions in cash by a partner for levering by CIHR.

contributions (in-kind) (contributions en nature)

In-kind (cash equivalent) contributions provided by a partner that:

  • are generally entirely relevant and central to the research (such judgment may be referred to peer review) for levering by CIHR; and
  • would have to be purchased by the recipient if they were not provided by a partner.

cumulative environmental effects (effets environnementaux cumulatifs)

The combined effects, good or bad, of components of a development (or a series of developments) and other activities occurring either simultaneously, sequentially, or in an interactive manner.

current funding opportunity (possibilité de financement courante)

A funding opportunity that is currently open for application. (These opportunities are located in CIHR's Funding Opportunities Database).


data and safety monitoring board (dsmb) (comité de surveillance des données et de la sécurité (csds))

An independent advisory committee who review accumulated safety and efficacy data in a clinical trial and advise the principal investigator and/or the trial steering committee on the future management of the trial.

deadline (application) (date limite de présentation des demandes)

The deadline date for institutions to electronically submit applications to CIHR via ResearchNet. Deadline dates are indicated in the funding opportunity descriptions.

deadline (application/registration/letter of intent) (date limite de demande et/ou d'inscription/lettre d'intention)

The latest acceptable date that an application can be courier-stamped or submitted electronically.

deadline (institution's internal) (date limite interne de l'établissement)

The deadline for Nominated Principal Applicants to electronically submit applications to the Institution via ResearchNet. Institutions may define their internal deadline. This deadline may be earlier than the application deadline indicated in the CIHR funding opportunity.

decision maker (décideur)

An individual who makes decisions about, or influences, health policies or practices. Decision makers can be practitioners, educators, health care administrators, elected officials (Exception: Federal elected officials), and individuals within the media, health charities, patient user groups or the private sector. They can work at the local community, municipal, provincial or national level. Decision makers are those individuals who are likely to be able to make use of the results of the research.

dissemination (dissémination)

Dissemination involves identifying the appropriate audience and tailoring the message and medium to the audience. Dissemination activities can include such things as summaries for / briefings to stakeholders, educational sessions with patients, practitioners and/or policy makers, engaging knowledge users in developing and executing dissemination/implementation plan, tools creation, and media engagement.


electronic approval of applications (approbation électronique des demandes)

The electronic approval of applications by the institution for which the Nominated Principal Applicant has identified as the Institution Paid

end of a trial (fin d'un essai)

The last follow-up of the last recruited trial participant for the primary outcome as defined in the initial protocol.

equipment (research) (appareil de recherche)

Any item (or interrelated collection of items comprising a system) of nonexpendable tangible property, having a useful life of more than 1 year and a cost of $2,000 or more, which is used wholly or in part for research.

Note that all three conditions must be met for an item to be considered equipment, i.e.:

  1. nonexpendable tangible property; and,
  2. useful life of more than 1 year; and,
  3. a cost of $2,000 or more.

To be considered materials or supplies an item must meet only one of the following conditions:

  1. expendable tangible property; or,
  2. useful life of 1 year or less; or,
  3. a cost of less than $2,000, excluding the non reimbursable portion of taxes.

For example, a laptop computer that costs less than $2,000 would be considered as materials or supplies even though it is a nonexpendable tangible item with a useful life of more than one year.

For the tax rate, consult your institution.

exchange (échange)

The exchange of knowledge refers to the interaction between the knowledge user and the researcher, resulting in mutual learning. According to the Canadian Health Services Research Foundation (CHSRF), the definition of knowledge exchange is "collaborative problem-solving between researchers and decision makers that happens through linkage and exchange. Effective knowledge exchange involves interaction between knowledge users and researchers and results in mutual learning through the process of planning, producing, disseminating, and applying existing or new research in decision making."


findings of clinical trials (conclusions des essais cliniques)

Consists of numeric results with interpretation.


gender (genre)

The socially constructed roles, behaviours, expressions and identities of girls, women, boys, men, and gender diverse people. It influences how people perceive themselves and each other, how they act and interact, and the distribution of power and resources in society. Gender is usually conceptualized as a binary (girl/woman and boy/man) yet there is considerable diversity in how individuals and groups understand, experience, and express it.

grant (subvention)

Support for the direct costs of research projects including for the training of researchers and/or activities that support the translation of research findings, conducted by either an investigator working alone or by a group of investigators working together.

grant (infrastructure) (subvention d'infrastructure)

Funding that provides an optimum environment for the conduct and support of health research. This includes funding for: conferences and workshops to establish research priorities; researcher networking and collaborative activities; scientific exchanges between Canadian and international researchers; programs that inform researchers and other stakeholders about aspects of health research; and grants to selected organizations engaged in research-related activities such as the Canadian Council on Animal Care and the National Council on Ethics in Human Research.

grant (pending) (subvention en attente)

Projects that have been approved for funding by CIHR however before funds can be released, the Nominated Principal Applicant has to resolve issues with their application. Pending grants have a status of "Pending" on the funding decision announcement and the Notice of Decision.

grant (renewal) (subvention de renouvellement)

A renewal of funding to continue the same line of investigation when a CIHR Nominated Principal Applicant's current grant expires.

grantee, grant holder (titulaire de subvention)

Refers to the Nominated Principal Applicant.


harms (préjudice grave)

Refer to the definition of severe adverse events or harms.

holders (award) (titulaires de bourse)

Undergraduate and graduate students and postdoctoral fellows supported by CIHR through scholarships or fellowships; or researchers supported by salary or career support grants from CIHR.


immediate family member (membre de la famille immédiate)

The recipient's spouse (including same-sex spouse), parent, step-parent, foster parent, child, step-child, foster child, or sibling.

independent researcher (chercheur indépendant)

Refers to the definition of researcher (independent)

institution (academic) (établissement universitaire)

An institution:

  • dedicated to education and research; and
  • which grants academic degrees.

institution (CIHR eligible) (établissement admissible des IRSC)

An institution which:

institution (non-eligible) (établissement non admissible)

An Institution other than a CIHR Eligible Institution.

institution (paid) (établissement payé)

Is a CIHR eligible institution that will administer the project funds.

In the case of an institution or organization that is not a CIHR eligible institution, the institution or organization that the Nominated Principal Applicant proposes will administer the project funds, should he/she be successful. This institution or organization will have a maximum of one year, from the date of notification of decision to the Nominated Principal Applicant, to become a CIHR eligible institution; otherwise the pending grant may be cancelled.

institution (primary) (établissement principal)

An Eligible Institution in direct receipt of Grant funds which it transfers to a Secondary Institution in order to facilitate research collaboration.

institution (research) (établissement de recherche)

An institution dedicated to conducting research.

institution (secondary) (établissement secondaire)

An Institution to which funds are transferred from a Primary Institution. It may be an Eligible Institution or Non-eligible Institution.

institutions (établissements)

The universities, hospitals, colleges, research institutes, centres and other organizations eligible to receive and manage grant funds on behalf of CIHR and Nominated Principal Applicants.

intellectual property (propriété intellectuelle)

All materials, concepts, know-how, formulae, inventions, improvements, industrial designs, processes, patterns, machines, manufactures, compositions of matter, compilations of information, patents and patent applications, copyrights, trade secrets, technology, technical information, software, prototypes and specifications, including any rights to apply for protections under statutory proceedings available for those purposes, provided they are capable of protection at law.

investigator (new) (nouveau chercheur)

A researcher who has held a full time research appointment (e.g., faculty appointment providing eligibility to apply for grants and/or supervise trainees), for a period of 0 to 60 months as of a competition deadline.

irreversible environmental effect (effet environnemental irréversible)

An effect which is irreversible within a human lifetime.


knowledge translation (application des connaissances)

A dynamic and iterative process that includes synthesis, dissemination, exchange and ethically sound application of knowledge to improve the health of Canadians, provide more effective health services and products and strengthen the health care system.

knowledge translation (end-of-grant) (application des connaissances en fin de subvention)

Covers the diffusion, dissemination and application of knowledge that researchers undertake once the findings from a project are available.

knowledge translation (integrated) (application des connaissances intégrée)

A way of doing research that involves decision makers/knowledge-users - usually as members of the research team - in all stages of the research process.

knowledge-user (utilisateurs de connaissances)

An individual:

  • who is likely to be able to use the knowledge generated through research in order to make informed decisions about health policies, programs and/or practices;
  • whose level of engagement in the research process may vary in intensity and complexity depending on the nature of the research and their information needs;
  • who can be, but is not limited to, a practitioner, policy maker, educator, decision maker, health care administrator, community leader, or an individual in a health charity, patient group, private sector organization or a media outlet.


micro-level data (microdonnées)

Refers to the definition of participant-level data.

monitoring (environmental assessment) (surveillance - évaluation environnementale)

  • confirms predictions of potential environmental impact and effectiveness of mitigation measures, and ensures that unforeseen and/or unacceptable impacts do not occur;
  • helps determine the validity and accuracy of the information presented in the environmental assessment screening;
  • depicts the effectiveness of proposed mitigation techniques or site restoration and estimates cumulative effects. Cumulative effects means the combined effects, good or bad, of components of a development (or a series of developments) and other activities occurring either simultaneously, sequentially, or in an interactive manner.

Monitoring measures may include: air quality testing, survey of species at risk, water quality testing, etc.


older archived funding opportunity (possibilité de financement archivée il y a plus longtemps)

An archived funding opportunity with an application deadline date of May 14, 2007 or earlier.

open access (libre accès)

A free availability of scientific and scholarly research texts on the public internet, permitting any users to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of these articles, crawl them for indexing, pass them as data to software, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without financial, legal, or technical barriers other than those inseparable from gaining access to the internet itself. The only constraint on reproduction and distribution, and the only role for copyright in this domain, should be to give authors control over the integrity of their work and the right to be properly acknowledged and cited. (Source: Budapest declaration, accessed 29 September 09)


participant-level data or micro-level data (données individuelles des participants ou microdonnées)

Include data on each individual studied, with quantitative or qualitative results representing the observations on each individual. The set of all observations for an individual is called a record. Each of these records has an identifier that allows a researcher to retrieve a particular record or set of records. Micro-level data sets may contain tens of thousands of records.

Users familiar with statistical software such as SPSS, Stata, or SAS can conduct a variety of statistical analyses on specified variables for all records or a subset of records in the data set. The advantage of using micro-level data is that users can develop customized analyses using specified variables of interest.

partner (partenaire)

Any organization with which CIHR has a relationship that is characterized by mutual cooperation, collaboration and a shared responsibility to achieve a specific health research goal. In this relationship, each organization has a separate identity and independent accountabilities, and all parties share a clear understanding or agreement of the goal, objectives, and terms of the arrangement.

The formality of these relationships may vary, but they all must be grounded in trust, mutual respect, and effective communication. CIHR's inclusive approach to the term "Partner" welcomes other organizations that share CIHR's commitment to the creation of new knowledge and its translation into improved health for Canadians and the global community. These collaborations may range from open, working relationships through committee work or meetings (for example, with the Health Charities Coalition of Canada), to the more formal, documented collaborations for funding opportunities (i.e., congruent partners & competition partners).

partner (applicant) (partenaire candidat)

Organizations identified by the applicants themselves that contribute cash and/or in-kind resources to specific projects of research, according to terms negotiated by the applicants. There is no formal relationship between CIHR and Applicant Partners. For reporting and management purposes, CIHR does not consider its relationship with applicant partners to be a partnership.

partner (auxiliary) (partenaire auxiliaire)

Organizations that have a financial relationship with a CIHR competition Partner. The CIHR partner is dependent on that relationship in order to meet its financial commitments to a CIHR funding opportunity. There is no formal relationship between CIHR and auxiliary partners. For reporting and management purposes, CIHR does not consider its relationship with auxiliary partners to be a partnership.

partner (competition) (partenaire de concours)

Competition partners collaborate with CIHR on specific health research funding opportunities, contributing financially or in-kind to the cause. While the principles of trust, respect, and communication also apply to this category of Partner, the relationship goes a formal step further by documenting roles, responsibilities, contributions, and competition dates in signed agreements. All Partners in a funding initiative share the benefits, outcomes, and risks associated with the initiative; all those engaged in the partnership also provide and gain additional value from the relationship that might not have been achieved separately. It is hoped that, after the conclusion of the funding initiative, a competition partner will become a congruent partner.

partner (congruent) (partenaire d'échange)

Organizations that work closely with CIHR on projects that involve sharing best practices and lessons learned. These partnerships do not necessarily involve funding programs. They include initiatives such as CIHR's work with the provincial funding agencies to obtain bibliometric data, or the collaboration between CIHR, the Health Charities Coalition of Canada and others to share best practices for communicating the impact of health research. It should be noted that this knowledge exchange and overarching support of health research flows both ways: CIHR values the input and support of its Partners, but is also available to share expertise and lessons learned. Congruent partners can become competition partners if a funding opportunity is developed.

partnership (partenariat)

A formalized working relationship between two or more organizations with separate identities and independent accountabilities and is based on mutual benefit and a clear understanding or agreement that sets out the shared goal and objectives and the terms of the arrangement.

personnel (research) (personnel de recherche)

Includes undergraduate and graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, research assistants, research associates, technicians, programmers, analysts, etc., who may contribute to the research activities of an independent researcher.

policy (agency) (politique de l'organisme)

The set of rules, directives and guidelines published by an individual Agency or jointly by the Agencies (CIHR, NSERC & SSHRC).

professor (adjunct) (professeur auxiliaire)

An individual who has:

  • a primary position at an institution other than the academic institution providing adjunct professor status; and
  • an academic appointment (at an institution other than their primary position) as an independent researcher.

proposal component (composante de la proposition)

Specific methodology or activity.

protocol (protocole)

A document written before participant enrolment to describe the objectives, methodology, statistical analyses, organization, and administrative details of a trial. (Source: OS1, accessed June 2009)

public disclosure of trial results (Diffusion publique des résultats d'un essai)

Consists of the publication of trial results in a peer reviewed journal, and the posting of aggregate (summary) data and micro (individual participant) level data on an unbiased freely accessible results website.


randomized controlled trial (RCT) (essai contrôlé randomisé (ECR))

An experiment in which investigators randomly assign eligible human research participants or other units of study (e.g., classrooms, clinics, playgrounds) into groups to receive or not receive one or more interventions that are being compared. The results are analyzed by comparing outcomes in the groups. (CIHR definition from: RCT Evaluation Criteria and Headings, accessed 1 Sept 2009)

recently archived funding opportunity (possibilité de financement récemment archivée)

An archived funding opportunity with an application deadline date of May 15, 2007 or later. (These opportunities are located in CIHR's Funding Opportunities Database).

registration of controlled and uncontrolled trials (enregistrement des essais contrôlés et non contrôlés)

Refers to the definition of trial registration.

release time allowance (allocation de détachement)

When included in a funding opportunity description, is an eligible expense to facilitate the participation of knowledge users in a research program. Funds are used to compensate the organization of the knowledge user for his/her time spent engaged in the research program.

Release time allowance requests will not be considered for the following:

  • individuals with salaried academic research appointments;
  • the cost of teaching time to allow the individual to engage in research;
  • supplementing or replacing part of the salary of a researcher on sabbatical from their main appointment.

research administration (administration de la recherche)

Institution officials who provide administrative services to researchers, from offices such as the research grants office, research accounting office or scholarships liaison office, as relevant.

research associate (associé de recherche)

A researcher who:

  • has completed formal training in research in a discipline relevant to health research, usually a Masters or PhD;
  • is employed by an institution;
  • works under the supervision of a Principal Applicant, i.e., they are not independent researchers;
  • may contribute substantially to the intellectual content of the research;
  • may contribute to, but is not ultimately responsible for, the supervision of staff, including other research associates and trainees, at the discretion of the Principal Applicant.

research (biomedical) (recherche biomédicale)

Research with the goal of understanding normal and abnormal human functioning, at the molecular, cellular, organ system and whole body levels, including development of tools and techniques to be applied for this purpose; developing new therapies or devices that improve health or the quality of life of individuals, up to the point where they are tested on human subjects. Studies on human subjects that do not have a diagnostic or therapeutic orientation.

research (clinical) (recherche clinique)

Research with the goal of improving the diagnosis, and treatment (including rehabilitation and palliation), of disease and injury; and improving the health and quality of life of individuals as they pass through normal life stages. Research on, or for the treatment of, patients. A CIHR theme.

research (health services) (recherche sur les services de santé)

Research with the goal of improving the efficiency and effectiveness of health professionals and the health care system, through changes to practice and policy. Health services research is a multidisciplinary field of scientific investigation that studies how social factors, financing systems, organizational structures and processes, health technologies, and personal behaviours affect access to health care, the quality and cost of health care, and, ultimately, Canadians' health and well-being. A CIHR theme.

research (social, cultural, environmental and population health) (recherche sur la santé des populations, ses dimensions sociales et culturelles, et les influences environnementales sur la santé)

Research with the goal of improving the health of the Canadian population, or of defined sub-populations, through a better understanding of the ways in which social, cultural, environmental, occupational and economic factors determine health status. A CIHR theme.

researcher (chercheur)

Anyone who carries out research activities.

researcher (independent) (chercheur indépendant)

An individual who:

  • is autonomous regarding their research activities; and
  • has an academic or research appointment which:
    • must commence by the effective date of funding; and
    • allows the individual to pursue the proposed research project, to engage in independent research activities for the entire duration of the funding, to supervise trainees, and to publish the research results; and
    • obliges the individual to conform to institutional regulations concerning the conduct of research, the supervision of trainees, and the employment conditions of staff paid with CIHR funding.

Note: An individual who meets the above requirements but is also a "trainee" as defined in this glossary, is considered an "independent researcher" by CIHR provided that:

  • the research proposal covers only areas of investigation for which they are an independent researcher and not areas of research in which they are a trainee; and
  • they can demonstrate in their application to CIHR that they will have sufficient time to devote to the proposed research.

In these cases, the individual must attach a description of their area of study to their application.


salary (salaire)

For the Tri-Agency definition of salary, consult the Compensation-Related Expenses subsection of the Tri-Agency (CIHR, NSERC & SSHRC) Financial Administration Guide

salary award programs (programmes de bourses salariales)

All CIHR-funded New Investigators, Investigators, Mid-Career Investigators, Senior Investigators, Research Chairs not including Canada Research Chairs, Clinician Scientist (Phase 2) and Senior Research Fellowships (Phase 2), including partnered salary opportunities, unless otherwise stated in the specific opportunity description.

self-archive (autoarchivage)

To deposit a digital document in a publicly accessible website, preferably an OAI-compliant Eprint Archive. (Source: Budapest declaration, accessed June 2009)

severe adverse events or harms (événement indésirable grave ou préjudice grave)

Include adverse events that result in death, require either inpatient hospitalization or the prolongation of hospitalization, are life-threatening, result in a persistent or significant disability/incapacity or result in a congenital anomaly/birth defect. Other important medical events, based upon appropriate medical judgment, may also be considered Serious Adverse Events if a trial participant's health is at risk and intervention is required to prevent an outcome mentioned. (Source:, accessed Nov 2009)

See also definition of side effect.

sex (sexe)

A set of biological attributes in humans and animals. It is primarily associated with physical and physiological features including chromosomes, gene expression, hormone levels and function, and reproductive/sexual anatomy. Sex is usually categorized as female or male but there is variation in the biological attributes that comprise sex and how those attributes are expressed.

side effect (effet secondaire)

Any unintended effect of an intervention. Side effects are most commonly associated with pharmaceutical products, in which case they are related to the pharmacological properties of the drug at doses normally used for therapeutic purposes in humans. Source: Cochrane, accessed 20 Nov. 09

See also adverse effects and severe adverse events or harms definitions.

signature (copied) (copie de signature)

A hand written signature which has been copied regardless of the medium used (e.g., faxed, photocopied, scanned .pdf, .wpg, .tif or stamped) and electronically inserted, in the case of scanned signatures.

signature (original) (signature originale)

A hand written "wet" signature (i.e., ink on paper).

stakeholder (environmental assessment) (principal intéressé - évaluation environnementale)

A person who:

  • has a shared interest in the project, through their involvement in the project; or
  • may be in the geographic locality where the proposal takes place; or
  • may be affected by the environmental effects of the proposal.

stipend (allocation)

For the Tri-Agency definition of stipend, consult the Compensation-Related Expenses subsection of the Tri-Agency (CIHR, NSERC & SSHRC) Financial Administration Guide.

summary-level or aggregate data (données sommaires ou regroupées)

The result of applying statistical procedures (e.g., weighting, imputation) and analyses (e.g., means, regression) to micro-level data sets.

Aggregate data provide estimates (e.g., how much aspirin reduces stroke risk) of the true result for the entire target population of the study (e.g., for all men with history of MI), based on data collected from the participants in a study who were sampled from the target population. Aggregate data can be univariate or multivariate, and can describe associations, trends over specific time periods, etc.

Journal articles and some websites (e.g., many federally sponsored surveys) provide aggregate data in the form of tables or graphs. One limitation of these prepared aggregate data is that they might not use all the variables of interest to the user.

Participant and summary level data definitions are modified from this source.

supervisor (directeur de recherche)

An individual who:

  • is a mentor; and
  • supervises trainee(s); and
  • holds an independent research appointment in areas of investigation where it is clear that the research has direct relevance to health

synthesis (synthèse)

Synthesis, in this context, means the contextualization and integration of research findings of individual research studies within the larger body of knowledge on the topic. A synthesis must be reproducible and transparent in its methods, using quantitative and/or qualitative methods. It could take the form of a systematic review, follow the methods developed by the Cochrane Collaboration, result from a consensus conference or expert panel or synthesize qualitative or quantitative results. Realist syntheses, narrative syntheses, meta-analyses, meta-syntheses and practice guidelines are all forms of synthesis. Resources related to synthesis are available.


trainee (stagiaire)

  • an individual who is enhancing their research skills through actual involvement in research and who works under the formal supervision of an independent researcher; or
  • an independent researcher who has taken a leave of absence from their academic or research position.

For example:

  • an undergraduate student engaged in research at an academic institution;
  • a graduate student enrolled in a graduate course of study at an academic institution;
  • a postdoctoral fellow (post-PhD) at a academic or research institution;
  • a post-health professional degree fellow (e.g., nursing, physiotherapy, medicine, dentistry) at an academic or research institution.

The list of examples is not exhaustive. Applicants are encouraged to communicate with CIHR.

training award programs (programmes de bourses de formation)

All CIHR-funded Studentships, Health Professional Student Research Awards, Master's Awards, Doctoral Awards, MD/PhD Studentships, Fellowships, Senior Research Fellowships (Phase 1), Clinician Scientists (Phase 1), including partnered training opportunities, unless otherwise stated in the funding opportunity.

trial information (information sur les essais)

Consists of trial research data and trial materials.

trial registration (enregistrement des essais)

Involves the assignment of a unique identification number; the recording and public release of protocol information; as well as the recording and public release of trial results. (Source: Ottawa Statement part 1, accessed 1 Sept 2009)

WHO regards trial registration as the publication of an internationally-agreed set of information about the design, conduct and administration of clinical trials. These details are published on a publicly-accessible website managed by a registry conforming to WHO standards. (Source, accessed 1 Sept 2009)

trial research data (données d'un essai)

Summary level or aggregate data (this usually gets published as results- see also definition of results), and individual participant or micro-level data (also called « raw data »).

trial research materials (documentation d'un essai)

Include the protocol, and amendments, ethics approval, consent form, information about financial arrangements, and any data collection forms.


valued ecosystem components (éléments importants d'un écosystème)

Elements of an ecosystem that are highly valued by the public.

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